China Primers

China’s Transition to NEVs and the new Electric Cars for 2020

Like most countries, China has been on a transition to New Energy Vehicles (NEV), or Alternative Fuel Vehicle (新能源汽车) for some time with a strategy centered on pure electric vehicles, along with plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles.

Not only critical for reducing city-level emissions (eg Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen) which were hitting record toxic levels, but also quite important for reduced reliance on imported fuels with China importing around 50% of its ever-growing oil requirements.

How did China become the world’s largest production base of electric cars?

In 2006, the government began to promote new energy vehicles and development in its “Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010)” and in 2009 launched the “Ten Cities, Thousands of Vehicles Demonstration Program” which created large-scale pilots in ten cities deploying electric vehicles in government fleets.

In 2011, the Central government’s Energy Conservation and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012-2020) (节能与新能源汽车产业发展规划) set some even clearer goals with examples being

  • by 2020, the production capacity of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles will reach 2 million
  • by 2020, the average fuel consumption of passenger cars produced in that year will be reduced to 5.0 liters/100 kilometers, and the fuel consumption of energy-saving passenger cars will be reduced to 4.5 liters/100 kilometers. The fuel consumption of new commercial vehicles will be close to the international advanced level.
  • Focus on the construction of power battery industry clusters
  • Strengthen the R & D and production capacity of key components. Cultivate 2 to 3 backbone enterprises in the fields of drive motors and high-efficiency transmissions.
  • Develop alternative fuel vehicles according to local conditions. Explore the application of other alternative fuel vehicle technologies to promote the diversified development of vehicle energy.

What took place following was the development of state-led research centers, industry co-ordination, state-led investment together with a surge in private capital, preferential policies, along with large subsidies for end product buyers.

Seven years on and China is in the midst of an electric car boom with nearly 100 manufacturers and a highly established battery and drivetrain industry.

While there are numerous start-ups and NEV manufacturers, the largest local electric vehicle manufacturers in China are BYD Auto, JAC, BAIC, and Geely. It is also worth noting that China is home to the world’s largest battery maker for EV’s, Contemporary Amperex Technology (CATL).

Hot start-ups in the electric car space include XPeng Motors who began shipping G3 2019 SUV and will launch their P7 Sedan in early 2020. NIO in partnership with JAC has released its ES8 and ES6 models. The Byton M-Byte is expected to enter production in 2020. Others include Singulato Motor, WM Motor, CHJ Automotive, JingChi, Youxia Motors, Polestar (Geely), Baojun, and Seres.

In 2017, the government began to gradually reduce preferential subsidies for the purchase of new energy vehicles which are set to be completely eliminated by 2020. Locally made new energy vehicles are still exempt from sales tax at this point which is believed to run until Dec, 2020.

From January to October 2019, the total production of automobiles in China was 20.444 million and sales 20.652 million. Of that, China’s new energy vehicle output was 983,000 units.

In total, it is estimated that there are about 400 million vehicles in China of which 3-5 million are electric/hybrid.

2020 China Electric and Hybrid Cars

Here is a list, with pics and specs, of the latest electric cars in China. These are all produced in China and approved for sales tax exemption (and are cars that you can actually buy and drive away). Some are from joint ventures with foreign automotive firms and many are wholly local development. Prices, where available, are estimates garnered from Sina Auto with USD$1 approx.= 元7.

Pure Electric Vehicles

ES8 Price: 元440000
Manufacturer: NIO – JAC Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd. (安徽江淮汽车集团股份有限公司) Model: HFC6502ECEV4-W
Range (km):355 Battery Weight (kg):505 Battery Power (kWh):70 Vehicle Weight (kg):2485

There is also a smaller ES6 with similar design and similar range.

腾势X Price: 元350000
Manufacturer: BYD Automotive Industry Co., Ltd. (比亚迪汽车工业有限公司) Model: QCJ6490SBEV
Range (km):520 Battery Weight (kg):514 Battery Power (kWh):83 Vehicle Weight (kg):2175
奔腾B30EV400 Price: 元188800
Manufacturer: China FAW Group Co., Ltd. (中国第一汽车集团有限公司) Model: CA7003BEVB
Range (km):406 Battery Weight (kg):325 Battery Power (kWh):52 Vehicle Weight (kg):1463
X7EV Price: 元unknown
Manufacturer: Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (重庆长安汽车股份有限公司) Model: SC6478AABBEV
Range (km):405 Battery Weight (kg):442 Battery Power (kWh):60 Vehicle Weight (kg):1855
T60EV Price: 元143800
Manufacturer: Dongfeng Motor Corporation Ltd (东风汽车有限公司) Model: DFL7000NA81BEV
Range (km):442 Battery Weight (kg):366 Battery Power (kWh):61 Vehicle Weight (kg):1590
MENLO Price: 元188800
Manufacturer: SAIC General Motors Co., Ltd. (上汽通用汽车有限公司) Model: SGM7007LABEV
Range (km):410 Battery Weight (kg):382 Battery Power (kWh):53 Vehicle Weight (kg):1660
帝豪EV Price: 元155000
Manufacturer: Shanxi New Energy Automobile Industry Co., Ltd. (山西新能源汽车工业有限公司) Model: JHC7002BEV44
Range (km):402 Battery Weight (kg):346 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1570
GE11 Price: 元200000
Manufacturer: Shanxi New Energy Automobile Industry Co., Ltd. (山西新能源汽车工业有限公司) Model: JHC7002BEV46
Range (km):410 Battery Weight (kg):346 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1650
帝豪GSE Price: 元160000
Manufacturer: Shanxi New Energy Automobile Industry Co., Ltd. (山西新能源汽车工业有限公司) Model: JHC7002BEV63
Range (km):400 Battery Weight (kg):346 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1635
中华H530EV Price: 元 unknown
Manufacturer: Brilliance Automobile Group Holdings Limited (华晨汽车集团控股有限公司) Model: SY7000BEVDAC
Range (km):420 Battery Weight (kg):438 Battery Power (kWh):62 Vehicle Weight (kg):1700
EX5400 Price: 元180000
Manufacturer: Weimar Automobile Manufacturing Wenzhou Co., Ltd. (威马汽车制造温州有限公司) Model: SZS6460A31BEV
Range (km):415 Battery Weight (kg):339 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1720
帝豪EV Price: 元unknown
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Haoqing Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (浙江豪情汽车制造有限公司) Model: JL7002BEV05
Range (km):402 Battery Weight (kg):346 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1570
江淮iEV6E Price: 元55000
Manufacturer: JAC Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd. (安徽江淮汽车集团股份有限公司) Model: HFC7000EWEV7
Range (km):310 Battery Weight (kg):249 Battery Power (kWh):35 Vehicle Weight (kg):1270
江淮iEV7S Price: 元120000
Manufacturer: JAC Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd. (安徽江淮汽车集团股份有限公司) Model: HFC7001EAEV12
Range (km):280 Battery Weight (kg):251 Battery Power (kWh):35 Vehicle Weight (kg):1400
北斗星 Price: 元unknown
Manufacturer: Jiangxi Changhe Automobile Co., Ltd. (江西昌河汽车有限责任公司) Model: CH7000BEVFA3B5
Range (km):101 Battery Weight (kg):104 Battery Power (kWh):12 Vehicle Weight (kg):865
E20 Price: 元68000
Manufacturer: Jiangxi Mahayana Automobile Co., Ltd. (江西大乘汽车有限公司) Model: JML7000BEV05
Range (km):302 Battery Weight (kg):205 Battery Power (kWh):30 Vehicle Weight (kg):930
帅客 Price: 元170000
Manufacturer: Zhengzhou Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (郑州日产汽车有限公司) Model: ZN6456V1YBEV
Range (km):320 Battery Weight (kg):377 Battery Power (kWh):53 Vehicle Weight (kg):1685
比亚迪e3 Price: 元160000
Manufacturer: BYD Automotive Industry Co., Ltd. (比亚迪汽车工业有限公司) Model: BYD7002BEVA1
Range (km):305 Battery Weight (kg):220 Battery Power (kWh):35 Vehicle Weight (kg):1255
传祺AION LX Price: 元340000
Manufacturer: Guangzhou Automobile Passenger Car Co., Ltd. (广汽乘用车有限公司) Model: GAM6480BEVB0A
Range (km):503 Battery Weight (kg):428 Battery Power (kWh):70 Vehicle Weight (kg):1900
菱智M5EV Price: 元210000
Manufacturer: Dongfeng Liuzhou Automobile Co., Ltd. (东风柳州汽车有限公司) Model: LZ6511MLANEV
Range (km):313 Battery Weight (kg):316 Battery Power (kWh):51 Vehicle Weight (kg):1850
奔奔E-Star Price: 元95000
Manufacturer: Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (重庆长安汽车股份有限公司) Model: SC7001AAABEV
Range (km):301 Battery Weight (kg):230 Battery Power (kWh):32 Vehicle Weight (kg):1180
CS55 E-Rock Price: 元unknown
Manufacturer: Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (重庆长安汽车股份有限公司) Model: SC7005AABBEV
Range (km):605 Battery Weight (kg):545 Battery Power (kWh):84 Vehicle Weight (kg):1920
eQ2 Price: 元98000
Manufacturer: Chery Automobile Co., Ltd. (奇瑞汽车股份有限公司) Model: SQR7005BEVJ51
Range (km):170 Battery Weight (kg):241 Battery Power (kWh):23 Vehicle Weight (kg):1300
易至EV3 Price: 元80000
Manufacturer: Jiangxi Jiangling Group New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd. (江西江铃集团新能源汽车有限公司) Model: JX7001ESKBEV
Range (km):401 Battery Weight (kg):260 Battery Power (kWh):41 Vehicle Weight (kg):1140
哪吒N01 Price: 元130000
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Hezhong New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd. (浙江合众新能源汽车有限公司) Model: THZ7000BEVS00D
Range (km):301 Battery Weight (kg):249 Battery Power (kWh):35 Vehicle Weight (kg):1181
ARRIZO5 e/ARRIZO e Price: 元160000
Manufacturer: Chery New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd. (奇瑞新能源汽车股份有限公司) Model: NEQ7000BEVJ60B
Range (km):401 Battery Weight (kg):348 Battery Power (kWh):54 Vehicle Weight (kg):1520
eQ1 Price: 元70000
Manufacturer: Chery New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd. (奇瑞新能源汽车股份有限公司) Model: NEQ7000BEVJ72F
Range (km):301 Battery Weight (kg):226 Battery Power (kWh):31 Vehicle Weight (kg):965/975
奥迪 E 创 Price: 元unknown
Manufacturer: Audi (China) Enterprise Management Co., Ltd. (奥迪(中国)企业管理有限公司) Model: ETRON 55 GEXBM1JQ6A0
Range (km):470 Battery Weight (kg):685 Battery Power (kWh):95 Vehicle Weight (kg):2630
田野EV Price: 元 unknown
Manufacturer: Hebei Zhongxing Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (河北中兴汽车制造有限公司) Model: BQ6452PBEV
Range (km):260 Battery Weight (kg):296 Battery Power (kWh):40 Vehicle Weight (kg):1615

 
Hybrids
 

MAGOTAN GTE
Manufacturer: FAW-Volkswagen Co., Ltd. (一汽-大众汽车有限公司) Model: FV7147FADCHEV
Elec Range: 56 Fuel Cons.:5.9 Engine Size:1395 Vehicle Weight:1750
东风风光ER3
Manufacturer: Dongfeng Xiaokang Automobile Co., Ltd. (东风小康汽车有限公司) Model: DXK7150KDSHEV
Elec Range: 100 Fuel Cons.:5.7 Engine Size:1498 Vehicle Weight:1740
PASSAT PHEV
Manufacturer: SAIC Volkswagen Co., Ltd. (上汽大众汽车有限公司) Model: SVW7142BPV
Elec Range: 63 Fuel Cons.:5.7 Engine Size:1395 Vehicle Weight:1730
E 300 eL
Manufacturer: Beijing Benz Automobile Co., Ltd. (北京奔驰汽车有限公司) Model: BJ7205JLHEV6
Elec Range: 50 Fuel Cons.:6.3 Engine Size:1991 Vehicle Weight:2115
VV7GT PHEV
Manufacturer: Great Wall Motor Co., Ltd. (长城汽车股份有限公司) Model: CC6481AD23CPHEV
Elec Range: 70 Fuel Cons.:6.1 Engine Size:1967 Vehicle Weight:2281
宝马X1插电式混合动力
Manufacturer: BMW Brilliance Automotive Co., Ltd. (华晨宝马汽车有限公司) Model: BMW6462ADHEV(BMWX1)
Elec Range: 110 Fuel Cons.:6.6 Engine Size:1499 Vehicle Weight:1909
宝马5系插电式混合动力
Manufacturer: BMW Brilliance Automotive Co., Ltd. (华晨宝马汽车有限公司) Model: BMW7201FMHEV
Elec Range: 95 Fuel Cons.:6.4 Engine Size:1998 Vehicle Weight:2005
S60 T8
Manufacturer: Daqing Volvo Car Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (大庆沃尔沃汽车制造有限公司) Model: VCD7204E44ZPHEV
Elec Range: 52 Fuel Cons.:5.9 Engine Size:1969 Vehicle Weight:2030
05 PHEV
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Geely Automobile Co., Ltd. (浙江吉利汽车有限公司) Model: MR6463PHEV10
Elec Range: 79 Fuel Cons.:5.2 Engine Size:1477 Vehicle Weight:1898
博瑞 GE
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Geely Automobile Co., Ltd. (浙江吉利汽车有限公司) Model: MR7153PHEV05
Elec Range: 60 Fuel Cons.:5 Engine Size:1477 Vehicle Weight:1790/1840
帝豪 GLPHEV
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Haoqing Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (浙江豪情汽车制造有限公司) Model: HQ7152PHEV16
Elec Range: 66 Fuel Cons.:4.6 Engine Size:1477 Vehicle Weight:1650
XC60 T8
Manufacturer: Zhejiang Haoqing Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (浙江豪情汽车制造有限公司) Model: VCC6474E41UPHEV
Elec Range: 50 Fuel Cons.:6.3 Engine Size:1969 Vehicle Weight:2186
比亚迪唐
Manufacturer: BYD Automotive Industry Co., Ltd. (比亚迪汽车工业有限公司) Model: BYD6490ST6HEV3
Elec Range: 81 Fuel Cons.:7.5 Engine Size:1999 Vehicle Weight:2390
腾势X
Manufacturer: BYD Automotive Industry Co., Ltd. (比亚迪汽车工业有限公司) Model: QCJ6490ST6HEV
Elec Range: 81 Fuel Cons.:7.5 Engine Size:1999 Vehicle Weight:2390
比亚迪宋Pro
Manufacturer: BYD Automobile Co., Ltd. (比亚迪汽车有限公司) Model: BYD6461ST6HEV2
Elec Range: 51 Fuel Cons.:5 Engine Size:1497 Vehicle Weight:1850
XC90 T8 LFBAGD3
Manufacturer: Volvo Car Sales (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (沃尔沃汽车销售(上海)有限公司) Model: XC90 T8 LFBAGD3
Elec Range: 50 Fuel Cons.:6.7 Engine Size:1969 Vehicle Weight:2351

The Future direction of New Energy Vehicles in China

New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035) is currently in planning with early indications of goals being set for

  • that by 2025, new energy vehicles will account for about 25% of new car sales
  • the average power consumption of new cars dropped to 12 kWh/100 kilometers, and the average fuel consumption of plug-in hybrid (including extended range) passenger cars dropped to 2 liters/100 kilometers.
  • continuing focus on pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid (including extended range) vehicles, fuel cell vehicles.

Some speculate that car sales in China will reach 35 million of which NEV’s could amount to 8.75 million. For an update on the new policy formation, keep an eye 新能源汽车产业发展规划

The arrival of Tesla

Tesla Gigafactory 3 is readying for production with the first batch in January or early February of 2020. The Model 3 from the Shanghai factory is priced at 355,800 yuan (US$50,595). The US-made Model 3 is no longer being imported in China and some speculate the price may reduce further as the last of the US imports are cleared from inventory.

The Model Y will also be produced in Shanghai. Tesla’s made locally in Shanghai should also be eligible for subsidies/tax exemption.

It is reported that an annualized production rate of 500,000 vehicles is expected out of the new Shanghai factory and have stated that they hope to see Model 3 production reach 3000 per week by early 2020.

They have also stated that their Supercharger network will be near doubled, increasing 39% to 362 stations within the coming months.

EV Charging networks in China

According to the EVCIPA (China Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Promotion Association – http://www.evcipa.org.cn), as of the end of May 2019, the number of facilities across the country totaled 976,000 units.

Public charging facilities make up about 40% of the near one million charging stations. The majority of the volume was recorded in Beijing and Shanghai, as well as in Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Zhejiang provinces.

The largest recharging station operators in China who account for around 90% of the network are

  • Qingdao Teld New Energy Co., Ltd (Tgood) – currently has 47% of China’s EV charging market.
  • State Grid Corporation of China
  • Star Charge
  • EV Power
  • AnYo Charging
  • Potevio
  • Shenzhen Car Energy Network

Fuel Cell Vehicles

According to China.org.cn, China had around 1,200 fuel cell vehicles (mostly commercial) and less than 20 hydrogen fuel stations at the end of 2017.

The Chinese government has set a goal to have 5,000 fuel cell vehicles on its roads by 2020; 50,000 by 2025 and 1 million by 2030. To that end a deal has been struck between Toyota, one of the leaders in fuel cell technology, to enter the country.

Toyota Motor has partnered with Guangzhou Automobile Group (GAC) and FAW Group to form a brand that will launch hydrogen fuel-cell car models.

Toyota also supplies parts to Beiqi Foton Motor Co Ltd, Beijing SinoHytec Co Ltd, FAW and Higer Bus.