China at War – From Ancient times to the Modern Day

In this chronology, I’ll list major conflicts, battles, and war in, and involving, China from Ancient times right through to the modern day. This timeline of China’s wars, both civil and with other countries, is broken into three main sections being Ancient China, Imperial China with sub sections for the dynasties, and lastly Modern China post becoming a republic. Jump to: Ancient China (to 221 BC) | Imperial China (221 BC to 1912) | Modern China (1912-current)     Ancient China   Year(s) Event Brief description 26th century BC Battle of Banquan The Yellow Emperor defeats the Yan Emperor. 26th century BC Battle of Zhuolu The Yellow Emperor defeats Chi You and establishes the Han Chinese civilisation. 1675 BC Battle of Mingtiao The Xia dynasty is overthrown and replaced by the Shang dynasty. 1046 BC Battle of Muye The Shang dynasty is overthrown and replaced by the Zhou dynasty. 707 BC Battle of Xuge The Western Zhou dynasty is defeated by the vassal Zheng state. 684 BC Battle of Changshao The Lu state defeats the Qi state 632 BC Battle of Chengpu The Jin state defeats the Chu state. 627BC Battle of Xiao The Jin defeates Qin. 595 BC Battle of Bi The Chu state defeats the Jin state. 588 BC Battle of An The Jin state defeats the Qi state. 575 BC Battle of Yanling The Jin state defeats the Chu state. 506 BC Battle of Boju The Wu state defeats the Chu state. 4th century BC Gojoseon–Yan War The Yan state defeats the Gojoseon kingdom. 494 BC Battle of Fujiao The Wu state defeats the Yue state. 478 BC Battle of Lize The Yue state defeats the Wu state. 453 BC Battle of Jinyang The Zhao state defeats the Zhi state. Leads to the Partition of Jin. 353 BC Battle of Guiling The Qi state defeats the Wei state. 342 BC Battle of Maling The Qi state defeats the Wei state. 341 BC Battle of Guailing   293 BC Battle of Yique The Qin state defeats the Wei and Han states. 269 BC Battle of Yanyu   260 BC Battle of Changping The Qin state defeats the Zhao state. 259 – 257 BC Battle of Handan The allied forces of Zhao, Wei and Chu defeats the Qin. 230–221 BC Qin’s wars of unification The Qin state conquers the six other major states in China and unifies the country under the Qin dynasty.   Imperial China   Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) Year(s) Event Brief description 215 BC Qin’s campaign against the Xiongnu Qin forces defeat the Xiongnu in the Ordos Desert. 214 BC Qin’s campaign against the Yue tribes Qin forces defeat and conquer the Yue tribes in southern China and northern Vietnam. 209 BC Dazexiang Uprising Chen Sheng and Wu Guang lead a rebellion against the Qin dynasty. 207 BC Battle of Julu A rebel coalition army led by Xiang Yu defeats Qin forces.   Chu-Han Contention (206–202 BC) Year(s) Event Brief description 206 – 202 BC Chu-Han Contention Han defeats Chu and its allies and unifies China. 205 BC Battle of Pengcheng Western Chu defeats Han. 205 BC Battle of Xingyang   205 BC Battle of Jingxing Han defeats the Zhao state. 203 BC Battle of Wei River Han defeats Western Chu and the Qi state. 202 BC Battle of Gaixia Han defeats Western Chu and unifies China under the Han dynasty.   Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) Year(s) Event Brief description 2nd century BC Southward expansion of the Han dynasty The Han dynasty expands its boundaries into southern China and northern Vietnam. 200 BC Battle of Baideng The Xiongnu defeat Han forces. 154 BC Rebellion of the Seven States The Han central government suppresses a revolt led by seven princes. 138 BC and 111 BC Han campaigns against Minyue The Han dynasty conquers the Minyue region (around present-day southeastern China). 133 BC – 89 AD Han–Xiongnu War Overall victory for Han forces over the Xiongnu. 133 BC Battle of Mayi Inconclusive battle between the Xiongnu and Han forces. 119 BC Battle of Mobei Han forces defeat the Xiongnu. 111 BC Han–Nanyue War The Han dynasty defeats the Nanyue kingdom,led to the First Chinese domination of Vietnam. 109 BC Han campaigns against Dian The Han dynasty conquers the Dian region (around present-day Yunnan). 109 BC Gojoseon–Han War Han defeats Gojoseon. Gojoseon kingdom collapses. 99 BC Battle of Tian Shan The Xiongnu defeat Han forces. 89 AD Battle of Ikh Bayan Han forces defeat the Xiongnu. 73 AD Battle of Yiwulu Han forces defeat the Xiongnu. 67 BC Battle of Jushi Han forces defeat the Xiongnu. 36 BC Battle of Zhizhi Han forces defeat the Xiongnu. 23 AD Battle of Kunyang Liu Xiu overthrows the Xin dynasty and restores the Han dynasty (as the Eastern Han dynasty). 43 AD Han suppression of the Trung sisters’ rebellion Han forces strikes down the Trung sisters’ rebellion,led to the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam. 184–205 AD Yellow Turban Rebellion Han forces defeat the Yellow Turban rebels. 190–191 Campaign against Dong Zhuo The Guandong Coalition attacks Dong Zhuo. No conclusive results. 190 Battle of Xingyang   191 Battle of Jieqiao Yuan Shao defeats Gongsun Zan. 191 Battle of Xiangyang Sun Jian is killed in action against Liu Biao‘s forces. 194–195 Battle of Yan Province Cao Cao defeats Lü Bu and takes back his territories in Yan Province. 194–199 Sun Ce’s conquests in Jiangdong Sun Ce conquers many territories in Jiangdong (southeastern China) and lays the foundation of Eastern Wu. 197–199 War between Cao Cao and Zhang Xiu Zhang Xiu surrenders to Cao Cao after they fought three battles between 197 and 199. 198 Battle of Xiapi Cao Cao and Liu Bei defeat Lü Bu. Lü Bu is executed after his capture. 199 Battle of Yijing Yuan Shao defeats Gongsun Zan. Gongsun Zan commits suicide. 197–199 Campaign against Yuan Shu Han forces defeat Yuan Shu. 200 Battle of Guandu Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao. 200–207 Cao Cao’s campaigns in northern China Cao Cao attacks Yuan Shao’s heirs and allies in northern China and unifies the region under his control. 202 Battle of Bowang Liu Bei defeats Cao Cao’s general Xiahou Dun and then retreats. 204 Battle of Ye   208 Battle of Xiakou Sun Quan defeats Huang Zu. 208 Battle of Changban Cao Cao’s forces defeat Liu Bei. 208 Battle of Red Cliffs Sun Quan and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao. 209 Battle of Jiangling The allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao’s general Cao Ren. 211 Battle of Tong Pass Cao Cao defeats a coalition of northwestern warlords led by Ma Chao and Han Sui. 212–215 Liu Bei’s takeover of Yi Province Liu Bei seizes control of Yi Province from Liu Zhang. 214–215 Battle of Xiaoyao Ford Cao Cao’s general Zhang Liao defeats Sun Quan’s forces. 215 Battle of Yangping Cao Cao takes control of Hanzhong commandery from Zhang Lu. 217 Battle of Ruxu The forces of Cao Cao and Sun Quan clash at Ruxu with no conclusive results. 217–219 Hanzhong Campaign Liu Bei seizes control of Hanzhong commandery from Cao Cao. 219 Battle of Fancheng Cao Cao’s forces successfully hold off a siege on Fancheng by Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu. 219 Lü Meng’s invasion of Jing Province Sun Quan’s forces capture Liu Bei’s territories in Jing Province. Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu is captured and executed.     Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD) Year(s) Event Brief description 221–222 Battle of Xiaoting / Battle of Yiling Wu defeats Shu. 222–225 Cao Pi’s invasions of Eastern Wu Wei attacks Wu three times. 224 Incident at Guangling   225 Zhuge Liang’s Southern Campaign Shu pacifies its southern borders and compels the Nanman tribes into submission. 227–228 Xincheng Rebellion Wei general Sima Yi suppresses a revolt by Meng Da. 228–234 Zhuge Liang’s Northern Expeditions Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang leads six campaigns to attack Wei but makes no significant territorial gains. 228 Battle of Shiting Wu defeats Wei. 228 Battle of Jieting Wei defeats Shu. 234 Battle of Wuzhang Plains Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang dies during a stalemate. Shu forces retreat. 238 Sima Yi’s Liaodong campaign Wei general Sima Yi suppresses a revolt by Gongsun Yuan in Liaodong (northeastern China). 244 Battle of Xingshi Shu repels a Wei invasion. 244–245 Goguryeo–Wei War Wei defeats Goguryeo. 247–262 Jiang Wei’s Northern Expeditions Shu general Jiang Wei leads nine campaigns to attack Wei but makes no significant territorial gains. 251–258 Three Rebellions in Shouchun Wei suppresses three consecutive revolts in Shouchun. 252 Battle of Dongxing Wu defeats Wei. 263 Conquest of Shu by Wei Wei conquers Shu.     Jin dynasty (265–420), the Southern Dynasties (420–587), the Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439) and the Northern Dynasties (386–581) Year(s) Event Brief description 280 Conquest of Wu by Jin The Jin dynasty conquers Eastern Wu and unifies China under its control. 291–306 War of the Eight Princes Eight Jin princes start a civil war. 304–316 Wu Hu uprising The Wu Hu tribes overthrow the (Western) Jin dynasty. The Jin dynasty is reestablished as the Eastern Jin dynasty. 305 – 307 Chen Min’s rebellion   311 Disaster of Yongjia   311 – 315 Du Tao’s Uprising   313 Zu Ti’s expedition Jin forces led by Zu Ti defeats Later Zhao. 314 Battle of Youzhou   316 Battle of Chang’an   319 Battle of Junyi Jin forces led by Zu Ti defeats Later Zhao. 319 Battle of Jicheng   328 Jin’s expedition against Su Jun   328 Battle of Luoyang   346 Jin-Cheng Han war Jin Dynasty defeats Cheng Han. 350 – 352 Battle of Xiangguo Ran Wei defeats Jie and other barbarians. 351 Former Yan-Ran Wei war Former Yan defeats Ran Wei. 354–369 Huan Wen’s expeditions Jin general Huan Wen attempts to reclaim territories in northern China. 354 Battle of Lukou   355 Battle of Guanggu   361 Battle of Yewang   369 Battle of Fangtou Former Qin and Former Yan defeat Jin Dynasty. 369 Conquest of Former Yan by Former Qin   376 Conquest of Dai by Former Qin   383 Battle of Fei River The Eastern Jin dynasty defeats Former Qin. 383 Lyu Guang‘s expedition to Qiuci   387 Battle of Liangzhou   389 Battle of Dajie   390 Battle of Xincheng Town   390 Northern Wei‘s campaign against Liu Weichen   392 Lyu Guang‘s expedition against Western Qin   393 Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan   395 Battle of Canhe Slope Northern Wei defeats Later Yan. 397 Battle of Bosi Northern Wei defeated Later Yan, but then retreated due to internal struggles. 399 – 411 Rebellion of Sun En and Lu Xun   404 Battle of Fuzhoushan   404 Liu Yu-Huan Xuan war   409–416 Liu Yu’s expeditions Jin general Liu Yu reclaims territories in northern China and establishes the Liu Song dynasty. 416 Conquest of Later Qin   422 Battle of Henan A battle between Liu Song and Northern Wei 426 Liu Song’s war against Xie Hui Xie Hui was captured. 426 Western Qin-Northern Liang war   426 – 427 Battle of Tongwan Northern Wei attacked Helian Xia‘s capital city, Tongwan 430; 450-452 Yuanjia Expeditions   429 Northern Wei‘s war against Rouran   432 Wei-Yan war   433 Battle of Hanzhong Northern Wei defeats Southern Qi. 439 Conquest of Northern Liang by Northern Wei   449 Battle of Yongzhou   450 Battle of Shaancheng   454 Conquest of Liu Yixuan by Liu Song Liu Yixuan was defeated. 459 Battle of Guangling   466 Liu Zixun’s rebellion   466 Battle of Pengcheng   467 Battle of QIngzhou   474 Battle of Jiankang   479 – 500 Qi-Wei war   479 Battle of Shouyang   488 Wei-Baekje war   494 Battle of Huaihan   495 Battle of Hanzhong   497 Battle of Nanyang   503 Battle of Zhongli and Yiyang   506 Battle of Hefei   507 Battle of Zhongli Liang dynasty defeats Northern Wei 515 Battle of Shaanshi   528 Battle of Ye   529 Chen Qingzhi‘s expeditions   531 Gao Huan‘s expedition against Erzhu   534 – 535 Civil war of Northern Wei Northern Wei split into Eastern Wei and Western Wei. 537 Battle of Shayuan   543 Battle of Mt. Mang   546 Battle of Yubi   547 Hou Jing’s rebellion against Eastern Wei Hou Jing led a rebellion against Eastern Wei and then fled to Liang dynasty. 552 Hou Jing’s rebellion against Liang Hou Jing led a massive rebellion against Liang dynasty. 554 Battle of Jiangling Western Wei defeats Liang dynasty 556 Northern Qi-Liang war   564 Battle of Luoyang Northern Qi defeats Northern Zhou. 569 Battle of Yiyang and Fenbei   575 – 577 Conquest of Northern Qi by Northern Zhou   575 Battle of Heyin   576 Battle pf Pingyang   580 Conquest of Yuchi Jiong by Yang Jian   580 Conquest of Wang Qian by Yang Jian   580 Battle of Lizhou   580 Battle of Wushe   580 Battle of Liangjun   580 Battle of Jinxiang   580 Battle of Shizhou     Sui dynasty (581–618) Year(s) Event Brief description 589 Conquest of Chen by Sui   598–614 Goguryeo–Sui War Goguryeo defeats Sui. 602 Sui–Lý War The Sui dynasty defeats the Early Lý dynasty,led to the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam. 611–619 Wagang ArmyUprising Led by Zhai Rang and later Li Mi 613 Yang Xuangan‘s Rebellion   616 Battle of Xingyang Wagang Army defeats Sui army led by Zhang Xutuo 617 Battle of Huoyi Li Yuan overthrows the Sui dynasty and establishes the Tang dynasty. 618 Battle of Luoyang Li Mi defeats Yuwen Huaji and then Wang Shichong defeats Li Mi.   Tang dynasty (618–907) Year(s) Event Brief description 621 Battle of Hulao Tang forces defeated Dou Jiande. 626 Xuanwu Gate Incident Li Shimin killed his brothers Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji in a coup and seized the succession to the Tang throne. 630 Battle of Yinshan Tang army, led by Li Jing, defeated and conquered Eastern Turks 635 Tang campaign against Tuyuhun Tang forces defeated and conquered Tuyuhun Khanate. 638 Battle of Songzhou The Tang Dynasty defeated the Tibetan Empire. 639–646 Tang campaign against Xueyantuo Tang forces defeated and conquered Xueyantuo Khanate. 640–657 Tang campaigns against the Western Turks Wars between the Tang Dynasty and the Western Turks. 640–648 Tang campaign against the oasis states The Tang Dynasty conquered the oasis states of the Tarim Basin. 640 Tang campaign against Karakhoja Tang forces defeated and conquered Karakhoja (Gaochang). 644, 648 Tang campaigns against Karasahr Tang forces defeat and conquered Karasahr. 648–649 Tang campaign against Kucha Tang forces defeated and conquered Kucha. 657 Battle of Irtysh River Tang forces defeated the Western Turks. 657 Conquest of the Western Turks Tang forces defeated the Western Turks. 645–668 Goguryeo–Tang War The Tang Dynasty defeated and conquered Goguryeo. 663 Battle of Baekgang Tang and Silla forces defeated Yamato Japanese and Baekje forces. 663 Tibetan campaign against Tuyuhun Tuyuhun Khanate was destroyed. 660 Baekje–Tang War The Tang dynasty defeated and conquered Baekje. 670 Battle of Dafei River The Tibetan Empire defeated the Tang Dynasty. 685 Battle of Kaoyu   697 Battle of Dongxiashi Valley Khitan defeated the Wu Zhou. 698 Battle of Tianmenling Mohe forces defeated the Wu Zhou. 717 Battle of Aksu (717) Tang forces defeated an allied forces of Umayyad Muslims, Tibetans and Turgesh Turks. 745–749 Siege of Shibao Fortress Tibetans forces defeated Tang 751 Battle of Talas The Abbasid Caliphate and Tibetans defeated the Tang Dynasty. 755 – 763 An-Shi Rebellion An Lushan, An Qingxu, Shi Siming and Shi Chaoyi led a massive rebellion against Tang Dynasty. 756 Battle of Tong pass The rebel Yan state defeats Tang Dynasty and soon captured Chang’an,the capital of Tang Dynasty. 756 Battle of Yongqiu The Tang Dynasty defeated the rebel Yan state. 757 Battle of Suiyang Pyrrhic victory for the rebel Yan state against Tang forces. 757 Battle of Xiangjisi Tang forces defeated rebel Yan forces and recaptured Chang’an. 758–759 Battle of Xiangzhou Rebel Yan forces defeated Tang forces. 762 Battle of Luoyang The Tang Dynasty decisively defeated the rebel Yan state,fall of Yan. 763 Battle of Chang´an No casualties, Tibetan Empire strategic victory against Tang Dynasty. 765 Battle of Xiyuan Tibetan Empire defeated the Tang Dynasty and Uyghur forces. 781 Battle of Henshui   801–802 Battle of Weizhou Tibetan forces decisively defeated Tang forces in the South-West front. 817 Conquest of the Western Huai River   819 Battle of Yanzhou Tibetan forces decisively defeated Tang forces in the North-West front. 874–884 Huang Chao Rebellion Huang Chao led a rebellion that weakened the Tang dynasty.   Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960) Year(s) Event Brief description 923 Conquest of Later Liang by Later Tang   925 Conquest of Former Shu by Later Tang   936 Conquest of Later Tang by Later Jin   945 Battle of Ting-Hsien     Song dynasty (960–1279) Year(s) Event Brief description 964 Conquest of Later Shu by Song Song conquest of the Later Shu. 970 Conquest of Southern Han by Song Song conquest of the Southern Han. 974 Conquest of Southern Tang by Song Song conquest of the Southern Tang. 979 Conquest of Northern Han by Song Song conquest of the Northern Han. 979 Battle of Gaoliang River The Khitan Liao Dynasty defeats the Song Dynasty. 986 Battle of Qigou Pass Liao forces defeat Song forces. 1004 Battle of Chanzhou Inconclusive. 1041 Battle of Haoshui River The Western Xia defeats the Song Dynasty. 1048 Battle of Pei-Chou   1075-1077 Lý–Song War Indecisive. 1126–1127 Siege of Dongjing The Jurchen Jin Dynasty decisively defeats the Song Dynasty,fall of Northern Song. 1129–1141 Song-Jin Wars Wars between the Song and Jin dynasties. 1130 Battle of Fuping Jin forces defeats Song forces. 1140 Battle of Yancheng Song forces under Yue Fei,defeat Jin forces. 1161 Battle of Tangdao Song forces defeat Jin forces. 1161 Battle of Caishi Song forces defeat Jin forces. 1234 Siege of Caizhou The Mongol Empire and the Song Dynasty decisively defeat the Jin Dynasty,fall of the Jin Dynasty. 1259 Siege of Diaoyu fortress Song forces defeat the Mongols. … Continue reading China at War – From Ancient times to the Modern Day