China at War – From Ancient times to the Modern Day

In this chronology, I’ll list major conflicts, battles, and war in, and involving, China from Ancient times right through to the modern day.

This timeline of China’s wars, both civil and with other countries, is broken into three main sections being Ancient China, Imperial China with sub sections for the dynasties, and lastly Modern China post becoming a republic.

Jump to: Ancient China (to 221 BC) | Imperial China (221 BC to 1912) | Modern China (1912-current)

 

Qin’s Wars of Unification saw some of the bloodiest battles in history

 

Ancient China

 

Year(s) Event Brief description
26th century BC Battle of Banquan The Yellow Emperor defeats the Yan Emperor.
26th century BC Battle of Zhuolu The Yellow Emperor defeats Chi You and establishes the Han Chinese civilisation.
1675 BC Battle of Mingtiao The Xia dynasty is overthrown and replaced by the Shang dynasty.
1046 BC Battle of Muye The Shang dynasty is overthrown and replaced by the Zhou dynasty.
707 BC Battle of Xuge The Western Zhou dynasty is defeated by the vassal Zheng state.
684 BC Battle of Changshao The Lu state defeats the Qi state
632 BC Battle of Chengpu The Jin state defeats the Chu state.
627BC Battle of Xiao The Jin defeates Qin.
595 BC Battle of Bi The Chu state defeats the Jin state.
588 BC Battle of An The Jin state defeats the Qi state.
575 BC Battle of Yanling The Jin state defeats the Chu state.
506 BC Battle of Boju The Wu state defeats the Chu state.
4th century BC Gojoseon–Yan War The Yan state defeats the Gojoseon kingdom.
494 BC Battle of Fujiao The Wu state defeats the Yue state.
478 BC Battle of Lize The Yue state defeats the Wu state.
453 BC Battle of Jinyang The Zhao state defeats the Zhi state. Leads to the Partition of Jin.
353 BC Battle of Guiling The Qi state defeats the Wei state.
342 BC Battle of Maling The Qi state defeats the Wei state.
341 BC Battle of Guailing  
293 BC Battle of Yique The Qin state defeats the Wei and Han states.
269 BC Battle of Yanyu  
260 BC Battle of Changping The Qin state defeats the Zhao state.
259 – 257 BC Battle of Handan The allied forces of Zhao, Wei and Chu defeats the Qin.
230–221 BC Qin’s wars of unification The Qin state conquers the six other major states in China and unifies the country under the Qin dynasty.

 

Imperial China

 
Qin dynasty (221–206 BC)

Year(s) Event Brief description
215 BC Qin’s campaign against the Xiongnu Qin forces defeat the Xiongnu in the Ordos Desert.
214 BC Qin’s campaign against the Yue tribes Qin forces defeat and conquer the Yue tribes in southern China and northern Vietnam.
209 BC Dazexiang Uprising Chen Sheng and Wu Guang lead a rebellion against the Qin dynasty.
207 BC Battle of Julu A rebel coalition army led by Xiang Yu defeats Qin forces.

 

Chu-Han Contention (206–202 BC)

Year(s) Event Brief description
206 – 202 BC Chu-Han Contention Han defeats Chu and its allies and unifies China.
205 BC Battle of Pengcheng Western Chu defeats Han.
205 BC Battle of Xingyang  
205 BC Battle of Jingxing Han defeats the Zhao state.
203 BC Battle of Wei River Han defeats Western Chu and the Qi state.
202 BC Battle of Gaixia Han defeats Western Chu and unifies China under the Han dynasty.

 

Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD)

Year(s) Event Brief description
2nd century BC Southward expansion of the Han dynasty The Han dynasty expands its boundaries into southern China and northern Vietnam.
200 BC Battle of Baideng The Xiongnu defeat Han forces.
154 BC Rebellion of the Seven States The Han central government suppresses a revolt led by seven princes.
138 BC and 111 BC Han campaigns against Minyue The Han dynasty conquers the Minyue region (around present-day southeastern China).
133 BC – 89 AD Han–Xiongnu War Overall victory for Han forces over the Xiongnu.
133 BC Battle of Mayi Inconclusive battle between the Xiongnu and Han forces.
119 BC Battle of Mobei Han forces defeat the Xiongnu.
111 BC Han–Nanyue War The Han dynasty defeats the Nanyue kingdom,led to the First Chinese domination of Vietnam.
109 BC Han campaigns against Dian The Han dynasty conquers the Dian region (around present-day Yunnan).
109 BC Gojoseon–Han War Han defeats Gojoseon. Gojoseon kingdom collapses.
99 BC Battle of Tian Shan The Xiongnu defeat Han forces.
89 AD Battle of Ikh Bayan Han forces defeat the Xiongnu.
73 AD Battle of Yiwulu Han forces defeat the Xiongnu.
67 BC Battle of Jushi Han forces defeat the Xiongnu.
36 BC Battle of Zhizhi Han forces defeat the Xiongnu.
23 AD Battle of Kunyang Liu Xiu overthrows the Xin dynasty and restores the Han dynasty (as the Eastern Han dynasty).
43 AD Han suppression of the Trung sisters’ rebellion Han forces strikes down the Trung sisters’ rebellion,led to the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam.
184–205 AD Yellow Turban Rebellion Han forces defeat the Yellow Turban rebels.
190–191 Campaign against Dong Zhuo The Guandong Coalition attacks Dong Zhuo. No conclusive results.
190 Battle of Xingyang  
191 Battle of Jieqiao Yuan Shao defeats Gongsun Zan.
191 Battle of Xiangyang Sun Jian is killed in action against Liu Biao‘s forces.
194–195 Battle of Yan Province Cao Cao defeats Lü Bu and takes back his territories in Yan Province.
194–199 Sun Ce’s conquests in Jiangdong Sun Ce conquers many territories in Jiangdong (southeastern China) and lays the foundation of Eastern Wu.
197–199 War between Cao Cao and Zhang Xiu Zhang Xiu surrenders to Cao Cao after they fought three battles between 197 and 199.
198 Battle of Xiapi Cao Cao and Liu Bei defeat Lü Bu. Lü Bu is executed after his capture.
199 Battle of Yijing Yuan Shao defeats Gongsun Zan. Gongsun Zan commits suicide.
197–199 Campaign against Yuan Shu Han forces defeat Yuan Shu.
200 Battle of Guandu Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao.
200–207 Cao Cao’s campaigns in northern China Cao Cao attacks Yuan Shao’s heirs and allies in northern China and unifies the region under his control.
202 Battle of Bowang Liu Bei defeats Cao Cao’s general Xiahou Dun and then retreats.
204 Battle of Ye  
208 Battle of Xiakou Sun Quan defeats Huang Zu.
208 Battle of Changban Cao Cao’s forces defeat Liu Bei.
208 Battle of Red Cliffs Sun Quan and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao.
209 Battle of Jiangling The allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao’s general Cao Ren.
211 Battle of Tong Pass Cao Cao defeats a coalition of northwestern warlords led by Ma Chao and Han Sui.
212–215 Liu Bei’s takeover of Yi Province Liu Bei seizes control of Yi Province from Liu Zhang.
214–215 Battle of Xiaoyao Ford Cao Cao’s general Zhang Liao defeats Sun Quan’s forces.
215 Battle of Yangping Cao Cao takes control of Hanzhong commandery from Zhang Lu.
217 Battle of Ruxu The forces of Cao Cao and Sun Quan clash at Ruxu with no conclusive results.
217–219 Hanzhong Campaign Liu Bei seizes control of Hanzhong commandery from Cao Cao.
219 Battle of Fancheng Cao Cao’s forces successfully hold off a siege on Fancheng by Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu.
219 Lü Meng’s invasion of Jing Province Sun Quan’s forces capture Liu Bei’s territories in Jing Province. Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu is captured and executed.

 

 

Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD)

Year(s) Event Brief description
221–222 Battle of Xiaoting / Battle of Yiling Wu defeats Shu.
222–225 Cao Pi’s invasions of Eastern Wu Wei attacks Wu three times.
224 Incident at Guangling  
225 Zhuge Liang’s Southern Campaign Shu pacifies its southern borders and compels the Nanman tribes into submission.
227–228 Xincheng Rebellion Wei general Sima Yi suppresses a revolt by Meng Da.
228–234 Zhuge Liang’s Northern Expeditions Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang leads six campaigns to attack Wei but makes no significant territorial gains.
228 Battle of Shiting Wu defeats Wei.
228 Battle of Jieting Wei defeats Shu.
234 Battle of Wuzhang Plains Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang dies during a stalemate. Shu forces retreat.
238 Sima Yi’s Liaodong campaign Wei general Sima Yi suppresses a revolt by Gongsun Yuan in Liaodong (northeastern China).
244 Battle of Xingshi Shu repels a Wei invasion.
244–245 Goguryeo–Wei War Wei defeats Goguryeo.
247–262 Jiang Wei’s Northern Expeditions Shu general Jiang Wei leads nine campaigns to attack Wei but makes no significant territorial gains.
251–258 Three Rebellions in Shouchun Wei suppresses three consecutive revolts in Shouchun.
252 Battle of Dongxing Wu defeats Wei.
263 Conquest of Shu by Wei Wei conquers Shu.

 

 

Jin dynasty (265–420), the Southern Dynasties (420–587), the Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439) and the Northern Dynasties (386–581)

Year(s) Event Brief description
280 Conquest of Wu by Jin The Jin dynasty conquers Eastern Wu and unifies China under its control.
291–306 War of the Eight Princes Eight Jin princes start a civil war.
304–316 Wu Hu uprising The Wu Hu tribes overthrow the (Western) Jin dynasty. The Jin dynasty is reestablished as the Eastern Jin dynasty.
305 – 307 Chen Min’s rebellion  
311 Disaster of Yongjia  
311 – 315 Du Tao’s Uprising  
313 Zu Ti’s expedition Jin forces led by Zu Ti defeats Later Zhao.
314 Battle of Youzhou  
316 Battle of Chang’an  
319 Battle of Junyi Jin forces led by Zu Ti defeats Later Zhao.
319 Battle of Jicheng  
328 Jin’s expedition against Su Jun  
328 Battle of Luoyang  
346 Jin-Cheng Han war Jin Dynasty defeats Cheng Han.
350 – 352 Battle of Xiangguo Ran Wei defeats Jie and other barbarians.
351 Former Yan-Ran Wei war Former Yan defeats Ran Wei.
354–369 Huan Wen’s expeditions Jin general Huan Wen attempts to reclaim territories in northern China.
354 Battle of Lukou  
355 Battle of Guanggu  
361 Battle of Yewang  
369 Battle of Fangtou Former Qin and Former Yan defeat Jin Dynasty.
369 Conquest of Former Yan by Former Qin  
376 Conquest of Dai by Former Qin  
383 Battle of Fei River The Eastern Jin dynasty defeats Former Qin.
383 Lyu Guang‘s expedition to Qiuci  
387 Battle of Liangzhou  
389 Battle of Dajie  
390 Battle of Xincheng Town  
390 Northern Wei‘s campaign against Liu Weichen  
392 Lyu Guang‘s expedition against Western Qin  
393 Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan  
395 Battle of Canhe Slope Northern Wei defeats Later Yan.
397 Battle of Bosi Northern Wei defeated Later Yan, but then retreated due to internal struggles.
399 – 411 Rebellion of Sun En and Lu Xun  
404 Battle of Fuzhoushan  
404 Liu Yu-Huan Xuan war  
409–416 Liu Yu’s expeditions Jin general Liu Yu reclaims territories in northern China and establishes the Liu Song dynasty.
416 Conquest of Later Qin  
422 Battle of Henan A battle between Liu Song and Northern Wei
426 Liu Song’s war against Xie Hui Xie Hui was captured.
426 Western Qin-Northern Liang war  
426 – 427 Battle of Tongwan Northern Wei attacked Helian Xia‘s capital city, Tongwan
430; 450-452 Yuanjia Expeditions  
429 Northern Wei‘s war against Rouran  
432 Wei-Yan war  
433 Battle of Hanzhong Northern Wei defeats Southern Qi.
439 Conquest of Northern Liang by Northern Wei  
449 Battle of Yongzhou  
450 Battle of Shaancheng  
454 Conquest of Liu Yixuan by Liu Song Liu Yixuan was defeated.
459 Battle of Guangling  
466 Liu Zixun’s rebellion  
466 Battle of Pengcheng  
467 Battle of QIngzhou  
474 Battle of Jiankang  
479 – 500 Qi-Wei war  
479 Battle of Shouyang  
488 Wei-Baekje war  
494 Battle of Huaihan  
495 Battle of Hanzhong  
497 Battle of Nanyang  
503 Battle of Zhongli and Yiyang  
506 Battle of Hefei  
507 Battle of Zhongli Liang dynasty defeats Northern Wei
515 Battle of Shaanshi  
528 Battle of Ye  
529 Chen Qingzhi‘s expeditions  
531 Gao Huan‘s expedition against Erzhu  
534 – 535 Civil war of Northern Wei Northern Wei split into Eastern Wei and Western Wei.
537 Battle of Shayuan  
543 Battle of Mt. Mang  
546 Battle of Yubi  
547 Hou Jing’s rebellion against Eastern Wei Hou Jing led a rebellion against Eastern Wei and then fled to Liang dynasty.
552 Hou Jing’s rebellion against Liang Hou Jing led a massive rebellion against Liang dynasty.
554 Battle of Jiangling Western Wei defeats Liang dynasty
556 Northern Qi-Liang war  
564 Battle of Luoyang Northern Qi defeats Northern Zhou.
569 Battle of Yiyang and Fenbei  
575 – 577 Conquest of Northern Qi by Northern Zhou  
575 Battle of Heyin  
576 Battle pf Pingyang  
580 Conquest of Yuchi Jiong by Yang Jian  
580 Conquest of Wang Qian by Yang Jian  
580 Battle of Lizhou  
580 Battle of Wushe  
580 Battle of Liangjun  
580 Battle of Jinxiang  
580 Battle of Shizhou  

 

Sui dynasty (581–618)

Year(s) Event Brief description
589 Conquest of Chen by Sui  
598–614 Goguryeo–Sui War Goguryeo defeats Sui.
602 Sui–Lý War The Sui dynasty defeats the Early Lý dynasty,led to the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam.
611–619 Wagang ArmyUprising Led by Zhai Rang and later Li Mi
613 Yang Xuangan‘s Rebellion  
616 Battle of Xingyang Wagang Army defeats Sui army led by Zhang Xutuo
617 Battle of Huoyi Li Yuan overthrows the Sui dynasty and establishes the Tang dynasty.
618 Battle of Luoyang Li Mi defeats Yuwen Huaji and then Wang Shichong defeats Li Mi.

 

Tang dynasty (618–907)

Year(s) Event Brief description
621 Battle of Hulao Tang forces defeated Dou Jiande.
626 Xuanwu Gate Incident Li Shimin killed his brothers Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji in a coup and seized the succession to the Tang throne.
630 Battle of Yinshan Tang army, led by Li Jing, defeated and conquered Eastern Turks
635 Tang campaign against Tuyuhun Tang forces defeated and conquered Tuyuhun Khanate.
638 Battle of Songzhou The Tang Dynasty defeated the Tibetan Empire.
639–646 Tang campaign against Xueyantuo Tang forces defeated and conquered Xueyantuo Khanate.
640–657 Tang campaigns against the Western Turks Wars between the Tang Dynasty and the Western Turks.
640–648 Tang campaign against the oasis states The Tang Dynasty conquered the oasis states of the Tarim Basin.
640 Tang campaign against Karakhoja Tang forces defeated and conquered Karakhoja (Gaochang).
644, 648 Tang campaigns against Karasahr Tang forces defeat and conquered Karasahr.
648–649 Tang campaign against Kucha Tang forces defeated and conquered Kucha.
657 Battle of Irtysh River Tang forces defeated the Western Turks.
657 Conquest of the Western Turks Tang forces defeated the Western Turks.
645–668 Goguryeo–Tang War The Tang Dynasty defeated and conquered Goguryeo.
663 Battle of Baekgang Tang and Silla forces defeated Yamato Japanese and Baekje forces.
663 Tibetan campaign against Tuyuhun Tuyuhun Khanate was destroyed.
660 Baekje–Tang War The Tang dynasty defeated and conquered Baekje.
670 Battle of Dafei River The Tibetan Empire defeated the Tang Dynasty.
685 Battle of Kaoyu  
697 Battle of Dongxiashi Valley Khitan defeated the Wu Zhou.
698 Battle of Tianmenling Mohe forces defeated the Wu Zhou.
717 Battle of Aksu (717) Tang forces defeated an allied forces of Umayyad Muslims, Tibetans and Turgesh Turks.
745–749 Siege of Shibao Fortress Tibetans forces defeated Tang
751 Battle of Talas The Abbasid Caliphate and Tibetans defeated the Tang Dynasty.
755 – 763 An-Shi Rebellion An Lushan, An Qingxu, Shi Siming and Shi Chaoyi led a massive rebellion against Tang Dynasty.
756 Battle of Tong pass The rebel Yan state defeats Tang Dynasty and soon captured Chang’an,the capital of Tang Dynasty.
756 Battle of Yongqiu The Tang Dynasty defeated the rebel Yan state.
757 Battle of Suiyang Pyrrhic victory for the rebel Yan state against Tang forces.
757 Battle of Xiangjisi Tang forces defeated rebel Yan forces and recaptured Chang’an.
758–759 Battle of Xiangzhou Rebel Yan forces defeated Tang forces.
762 Battle of Luoyang The Tang Dynasty decisively defeated the rebel Yan state,fall of Yan.
763 Battle of Chang´an No casualties, Tibetan Empire strategic victory against Tang Dynasty.
765 Battle of Xiyuan Tibetan Empire defeated the Tang Dynasty and Uyghur forces.
781 Battle of Henshui  
801–802 Battle of Weizhou Tibetan forces decisively defeated Tang forces in the South-West front.
817 Conquest of the Western Huai River  
819 Battle of Yanzhou Tibetan forces decisively defeated Tang forces in the North-West front.
874–884 Huang Chao Rebellion Huang Chao led a rebellion that weakened the Tang dynasty.

 

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960)

Year(s) Event Brief description
923 Conquest of Later Liang by Later Tang  
925 Conquest of Former Shu by Later Tang  
936 Conquest of Later Tang by Later Jin  
945 Battle of Ting-Hsien  

 

Song dynasty (960–1279)

Year(s) Event Brief description
964 Conquest of Later Shu by Song Song conquest of the Later Shu.
970 Conquest of Southern Han by Song Song conquest of the Southern Han.
974 Conquest of Southern Tang by Song Song conquest of the Southern Tang.
979 Conquest of Northern Han by Song Song conquest of the Northern Han.
979 Battle of Gaoliang River The Khitan Liao Dynasty defeats the Song Dynasty.
986 Battle of Qigou Pass Liao forces defeat Song forces.
1004 Battle of Chanzhou Inconclusive.
1041 Battle of Haoshui River The Western Xia defeats the Song Dynasty.
1048 Battle of Pei-Chou  
1075-1077 Lý–Song War Indecisive.
1126–1127 Siege of Dongjing The Jurchen Jin Dynasty decisively defeats the Song Dynasty,fall of Northern Song.
1129–1141 Song-Jin Wars Wars between the Song and Jin dynasties.
1130 Battle of Fuping Jin forces defeats Song forces.
1140 Battle of Yancheng Song forces under Yue Fei,defeat Jin forces.
1161 Battle of Tangdao Song forces defeat Jin forces.
1161 Battle of Caishi Song forces defeat Jin forces.
1234 Siege of Caizhou The Mongol Empire and the Song Dynasty decisively defeat the Jin Dynasty,fall of the Jin Dynasty.
1259 Siege of Diaoyu fortress Song forces defeat the Mongols.
1273 Battle of Xiangyang The Mongols defeat Song forces.
1279 Battle of Yamen The Mongols decisively defeat the Song Dynasty,fall of Southern Song.

 

Liao dynasty (907–1125)

Year(s) Event Brief description
  Liao-Song War  
979 Battle of Gaoliang River The Liao Dynasty defeats the Song Dynasty.
986 Battle of Qigou Pass Liao forces defeat Song forces.
1004 Battle of Chanzhou Inconclusive.
1044 Battle of Hequ The Western Xia defeats the Liao Dynasty.
1114–1125 Liao-Jin War  

 

Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

Year(s) Event Brief description
1126–1127 Siege of Dongjing The Jurchen Jin Dynasty decisively defeats the Song Dynasty,fall of Northern Song.
1130 Battle of Fuping Jin forces defeats Song forces.
1211–1234 Mongol–Jin War The Mongols defeat and conquer Jin.
1211 Battle of Yehuling The Mongols defeat Jin.
1215 Battle of Zhongdu The Mongols defeat Jin.
1232 Mongol siege of Kaifeng The Mongols capture the Jin city Kaifeng.
1234 Siege of Caizhou The Mongol Empire and the Song Dynasty decisively defeat the Jin Dynasty,fall of the Jin Dynasty.

 

 

Yuan dynasty (1271–1368)

Year(s) Event Brief description
1274, 1281 Mongol invasions of Japan The Japanese repel the Mongol invasions.
1277–1287 First Mongol invasion of Burma Mongol Yuan victory, fall of the Pagan Empire.
1288 Battle of Bạch Đằng The Vietnamese defeat Yuan forces.
1293 Mongol invasion of Java Failed Yuan expedition to Java.
1301 Second Mongol invasion of Burma The Burmese defeat Yuan forces.
1351–1368 Red Turban Rebellion The Red Turban rebels overthrow the Yuan dynasty.
1359 Red Turban invasions of Goryeo The Red Turban rebels attack Goryeo.
1360 Battle of Yingtian  
1363 Battle of Lake Poyang Zhu Yuanzhang defeats Chen Youliang.

Ming dynasty (1368–1644)

Year(s) Event Brief description
1381–1382 Ming conquest of Yunnan The Ming expelled the last of the loyalist Mongol forces of the Yuan in South China.
1387 Ming campaign against the Uriyangkhad horde The Ming received the surrender of the Naghachu based in Manchuria.
1388 Battle of Buir Lake The Ming decisively defeated Toghus Temur, Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
14th century–15th century Miao Rebellions Ming forces suppressed rebellions by the Miao and other aboriginal peoples in southwestern China.
1399–1402 Jingnan Campaign Zhu Di seized the throne from the Jianwen Emperor in a civil war.
15th century–16th century Ming–Turpan conflict The Ming clashed with the Turpan kingdom.
1406–1407 Ming–Hồ War The Ming defeated the Hồ dynasty,led to the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam.
1410 Ming–Kotte War The Ming defeated the Kingdom of Kotte.
1410–1424 Yongle Emperor’s campaigns against the Mongols The Ming launched punitive expeditions against the Eastern Mongols, Oyirad Mongols, and other Mongol tribes.
1449 Tumu Crisis The Mongols defeated the Ming.
1510 Prince of Anhua rebellion The Ming suppressed a revolt by Zhu Zhifan (the Prince of Anhua).
1519 Prince of Ning rebellion The Ming suppressed a revolt by Zhu Chenhao (the Prince of Ning).
  Malayan–Portuguese war  
1521 First Battle of Tamao The Ming defeated the Portuguese in a naval battle.
1522 Second Battle of Tamao The Ming defeated the Portuguese in a naval battle.
1575–1581 Li Chengliang campaign against Tuman Khan The Ming defeated the Mongols
1592–1598 Japanese invasions of Korea The Ming and Joseon defeated Japanese invaders.
1593 Siege of Pyongyang The Ming and Joseon defeated Japanese invaders.
1597 Siege of Ulsan Ming and Joseon forces failed to capture Ulsan Castle from the Japanese.
1598 Battle of Sacheon Ming and Joseon forces failed to capture Sacheon from the Japanese.
1598 Battle of Noryang Ming and Joseon forces defeated the Japanese in a naval battle.
1618–1683 Qing conquest of the Ming The Qing dynasty defeated and conquered the Ming.
1618–1619 Battle of Sarhu The Manchus defeated the Ming.
1626 Battle of Ningyuan The Ming defeated the Manchus.
1622–1633 Sino-Dutch conflicts A series of conflicts between the Ming and the Dutch East India Companythat began on Penghu and concluded with Ming victory at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay.
1641–1642 Battle of Songjin The Qing defeated the Ming.
1642 Battle of Nanyang  
1643 Battle of Tongguan Ming was defeated by Li Zicheng in Shaanxi.
1644 Battle of Beijing Rebel forces led by Li Zicheng occupied the capital Beijing and overthrew the Ming dynasty.
1644 Battle of Shanhai Pass Qing forces allied with former Ming general Wu Sangui and defeated Li Zicheng’s forces.

 

Qing dynasty (1644–1912)

Year(s) Event Brief description
1652–1689 Sino-Russian border conflicts Border conflicts between the Qing and the Russian Empire concluded with Qing victory and the signing of the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
1661–1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia Koxinga defeated the Dutch and conquered Taiwan.
1678–1680 Dzungar conquest of Altishahr Dzungars conquer the Yarkent Chagatai Khanate
1674–1681 Revolt of the Three Feudatories The Qing suppressed rebellions in Fujian, Guangdong and Yunnan.
1683 Battle of Penghu The Qing conquered the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan.
1690–1757 Dzungar–Qing War  
1690 Battle of Ulan Butung Withdraw of Dzungar Khanate forces.
1696 Battle of Jao Modo The Qing defeated Galdan of the Dzungar Khanate.
1718 Battle of the Salween River The Dzungars defeated the Qing expedition force to Tibet.
1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) Qing victory against the Dzungars
1755–1759 Qianlong’s Campaign Against the Dzungars and Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas Qing victory, destruction of the Dzungar Khanate and Qing conquest of Xinjiang.
1765–1769 Sino-Burmese War Burmese victory.
1788–1789 Campaign in Vietnam Tây Sơn dynasty victory, Qing troops retreat from Vietnam.
1790–1791 Sino-Nepalese War Qing victory.
1794–1804 White Lotus Rebellion The Qing suppressed a revolt by the White Lotus Society.
19th century Ningpo Massacre Cantonese pirates (with support from the Qing) defeated Portuguese pirates.
1820’s-1850’s Afaqi Khoja revolts Aq Taghlik Khojas (Afaqi Khojas) attack Xinjiang. Qing victory
1839–1842 First Opium War The Qing lost to the British and ceded Hong Kong to the latter.
1839 Battle of Kowloon Stalemate between the British and the Qing.
1839 Battle of Chuenpi The British defeated the Qing.
1840 Capture of Chusan The British defeated the Qing.
1840 Battle of the Barrier The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Second Battle of Chuenpi The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of the Bogue The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of First Bar The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of Whampoa The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of Canton (March 1841) The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Sino-Sikh War Military stalemate between the Sikhs and the Qing. Treaty of Chushul signed.
1841 Battle of Canton (May 1841) The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of Amoy The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Capture of Chusan (1841) The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of Chinhai The British defeated the Qing.
1841 Battle of Keelung (1841–1842) The Qing defeated the British.
1842 Battle of Ningpo The British defeated the Qing.
1842 Battle of Tzeki The British defeated the Qing.
1842 Battle of Chapu The British defeated the Qing.
1842 Battle of Woosung The British defeated the Qing.
1842 Battle of Chinkiang The British defeated the Qing.
1850–1864 Taiping Rebellion The Qing defeated the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (founded by the Taiping rebels).
1850 Jintian Uprising Start of the Taiping Rebellion.
1852 Battle of Changsha  
1853 Battle of Nanjing The Taiping rebels captured Nanjing from the Qing.
1854 Battle of Lake Dongting  
1856 Battle of Nanjing The Taiping rebels defeated the Qing.
1856 Third Battle of Wuhan  
1857 Battles of Lake Tai  
1858 Battle of Sanhe The Taiping rebels defeated the Qing.
1859 Battle of Jiujiang  
1860 Second rout of the Jiangnan Daying The Taiping rebels defeated the Qing.
1861 Battle of Anqing  
1861–1864 Battle of Guanzhong The Taiping rebels defeated the Qing.
1861 Battle of Shanghai The Qing defeated the Taiping rebels with assistance from British and French forces.
1862 Battle of Cixi The Qing defeated the Taiping rebels.
1863 Battle of Northern Jiangsu  
1863–1864 Battle of Changzhou The Qing defeated the Taiping rebels.
1864 Third Battle of Nanking The Qing seized Nanjing from the Taiping rebels.
1864 Battle of Hubei The Qing seized Hubei and southern Anhui from the Taiping rebels.
1865 Battle of Fujian The Qing recover previously lost territories in Fujian from the Taiping rebels.
1866 Battle of Meizhou  
1866 Formosa Expedition Paiwan Aboriginals defeat the Americans
1856–1873 Panthay Rebellion The Qing and Hui loyalists suppressed a revolt by the Hui people and other ethnic minorities in Yunnan.
1862–1877 Dungan revolt The Qing and Hui loyalists suppressed a revolt by the Hui people in northwestern China.
1870 Battle of Ürümqi (1870) The Uzbek controlled kingdom of Kashgaria defeated Hui rebels.
1854–56 Red Turban Rebellion The Qing defeated Red Turban rebels in Guangdong
1855–1867 Punti-Hakka Clan Wars Hakka were allocated their own independent sub-prefecture, Chixi (赤溪镇), which was carved out of south-eastern Taishan, while others were relocated to Guangxi Province, mass emigration to other countries.
1864–1869 Nian Rebellion The Qing suppressed a revolt led by Zhang Lexing and others.
1865 Battle of Gaolozai  
1867 Battle of Inlon River The Qing defeated the Nian rebels.
1867 Battle of Ganyu  
1867 Battle of Shouguang  
1856–1860 Second Opium War The British, French and Americans defeated the Qing.
1856 Battle of the Pearl River Forts The Americans defeated the Qing.
1857 Battle of Fatshan Creek The British defeated the Qing.
1858 First Battle of Taku Forts The British and French defeated the Qing.
1859 Second Battle of Taku Forts The Qing defeated the British, French, and Americans.
1860 Third Battle of Taku Forts The British and French defeated the Qing.
1860 Battle of Palikao The British and French defeated the Qing.
1874 Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874) Paiwan Aboriginals fight against the Japanese
1876–1878 Qing reconquest of Xinjiang The Qing defeat Yaqub Beg’s forces in Kashgaria.
1884–1885 Sino-French War Militarily indecisive, diplomatic victory of the French.
1883–1886 Tonkin Campaign The French defeated the Qing, Vietnamese and Black Flag Army.
1883 Sơn Tây Campaign The French defeated the Qing, Vietnamese and Black Flag Army.
1883 Battle of Paper Bridge The Black Flag Army defeated the French.
1884 Bắc Ninh Campaign The French defeated the Qing and Black Flag Army.
1884 Bắc Lệ ambush The Qing defeated the French.
1884 Battle of Fuzhou The French defeated the Qing.
1884 Battle of Tamsui The Qing defeated the French.
1884 Kep Campaign The French defeated the Qing.
1884–1885 Keelung Campaign Stalemate between the French and the Qing.
1885 Lạng Sơn Campaign The French defeated the Qing.
1885 Battle of Shipu The French defeated the Qing.
1885 Battle of Zhenhai The French clashed with the Qing.
1885 Siege of Tuyên Quang The French defeated the Qing and Black Flag Army.
1885 Battle of Hoa Moc The French defeated the Qing and Black Flag Army.
1885 Battle of Bang Bo The Qing and Black Flag Army defeated the French.
1885 Battle of Phu Lam Tao The Qing and Black Flag Army defeated the French.
1885 Pescadores Campaign The French defeated the Qing.
1884 Gapsin Coup The Qing defeated the Japanese.
1894–1895 First Sino-Japanese War The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of Pungdo The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of Seonghwan The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of Pyongyang The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of the Yalu River The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of Jiuliancheng The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1894 Battle of Lushunkou The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1895 Battle of Weihaiwei The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1895 Battle of Yingkou The Japanese defeated the Qing.
1895–1896 Dungan revolt The Qing and Muslim loyalists suppressed a revolt by Muslim forces in western China.
1895 Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895) The Japanese occupy Taiwan.
1899–1901 Boxer Rebellion The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated the Boxer rebels and Qing forces.
1900 Battle of Dagu Forts The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated Qing forces.
1900 Battle of Tientsin The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated Qing forces.
1900 Battle of Shanhai Pass Inconclusive.
1900 Battle of Beicang The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated Qing forces.
1900 Battle of Yangcun The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated Qing forces.
1900 Russian invasion of Manchuria The Russians defeated the Boxer rebels and Qing.
1900 Battle of Pai-t’ou-tzu The Boxer rebels and Qing forces defeated the Russians.
1900 Battles on Amur River The Russians defeated the Boxer rebels and Qing forces.
1900 Battle of Peking The Eight-Nation Alliance defeated the Boxer rebels and Qing forces.
1900 Seymour Expedition(Battle of Langfang) The Boxer rebels and Qing forces defeated the Eight-Nation Alliance.
1900 Siege of the International Legations The Boxers assault the Legations in Beijing.
1911 Battle of Yangxia Qing and Revolutionary Armies vie for control of Wuhan.

 

Modern China

Year(s) Event Brief description
1913 Second Chinese Revolution Yuan Shikai and his military crush a rebellion against his mis gained power.
1915-16 National Protection War A civil war against Yuan Shikai, who had declared himself emperor.
1917-1949 Golok rebellions A series of military campaigns against unconquered Ngolok (Golok) tribal Tibetan areas of Qinghai (Amdo), undertaken by two Hui commanders, Gen. Ma Qi and Gen. Ma Bufang
1920 Zhili–Anhui War Zhili and Anhui cliques for control of the Beiyang government
1922 First Zhili-Fengtian War Zhili and Fengtian cliques for control of Beijing
1924 Second Zhili-Fengtian War a conflict between the Japanese-backed Fengtian clique and the Anglo-American backed Zhili clique controlling Beijing
1925-26 Anti–Fengtian War Guominjun against the Fengtian clique and their Zhili clique allies.
1926–1928 Northern Expedition a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang(KMT), against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords with purpose of reunifying China
1927–1936 Chinese Civil War (First phase) A war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)
1929 Sino-Soviet conflict an armed conflict between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang of the Republic of China over the Chinese Eastern Railway
1929 Battle of Xahe The Chinese Muslim Ma clique under Generals Ma Qi and Ma Bufang launched several attacks against Labrang as part of a general anti-Golok Tibetan campaign.
1930 Central Plains War a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and former allies of Chiang.
1930–1932 Sino-Tibetan War A war between Tibetan forces and the Chinese Republic.
1930–34 Kumul Rebellion A rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin Shuren, governor of Xinjiang.
1931–1945 Second Sino-Japanese War (part of World War II) A military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan with its minor conflicts beginning in 1931 with war declared at the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937
1932 Kirghiz rebellion Kyrgyz irregulars in Xinjiang revolted against the government.
1933–34 Fujian Rebellion A breakaway province that aimed to defeat the Kuomintang with Soviet help that didn’t materialise ending in its demise.
1934 Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934.
1937 Xinjiang War 1,500 Turkic (Uighur) Muslims led by Kichik Akhund, tacitly aided by the 36th Division against the pro-Soviet provincial forces of Sheng Shicai.
1945–49 Chinese Civil War (Second phase) a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)
1946–49 Ili Rebellion A Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944
1949-1955 Post Civil War battles Innumerous battles between Nationalist (KMT) forces and Communist forces, clearing remnants of the KMT from what is now mainland People’s Republic of China and battles for islands off the coast of the southern China.
1950-1958 Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Muslim Kuomintang Republic of China Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.
1950 Invasion of Tibet (Battle of Chamdo) a military campaign by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) against a de facto independent Tibet in Chamdo after months of failed negotiations.
1950-1953 Korean War a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.
1954–1955 First Taiwan Strait Crisis a brief armed conflict that took place between the governments of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC), which by then had fled and was based in Taiwan.
1958 Second Taiwan Strait Crisis a conflict that took place between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) in which the PRC aimed to “liberate” Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also called Kuomintang (KMT)
1959 Tibetan Uprising Armed conflict between Tibetan guerrillas and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) had started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which had been subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962.
1959-1975 Vietnam War a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam with Soviet, China, and Communist allies backing the north, and United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies backing the south.
1960-1961 Campaign at the China–Burma border a series of battles fought between the Chinese nationalists and the communists at or around the China–Myanmar border, after the Chinese Civil War
1960-current Xinjiang conflict an ongoing separatist conflict in China’s far-west province of Xinjiang. Uyghur separatists claim that the region is not a part of China, but that the Second East Turkestan Republic was illegally incorporated into the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and has since been under Chinese occupation.
1962 Sino-Indian War a war between China and India over border disputes.
1967 Nathu La and Cho La incidents a series of military clashes between India and China alongside the border of the Himalayan Kingdom of Sikkim, then an Indian protectorate.
1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union
1974 Battle of the Paracel Islands a military engagement between the naval forces of China and South Vietnam in the Paracel Islands on January 19, 1974. The battle was an attempt by the South Vietnamese navy to expel the Chinese navy from the vicinity.
1979 Sino-Vietnamese War a brief border war fought between the People’s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979.
1996 Third Taiwan Strait Crisis the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the waters surrounding Taiwan including the Taiwan Strait from 21 July 1995, to 23 March 1996
2001-current War on Terror China is a major ally in the war on terror with the US, UK, France, and Russia.
2009–2016 Operation Ocean Shield China was a contributing nation in the successful operation against pirates.
2012-present Northern Mali conflict China has peacekeeping forces in Mali and a major player in attempts to stabilise the region